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Word Count: 3,562
Western liberal scholars have divided human history into three phases the premodern the modern and the post modern Each phase has no definite end rather they layer on top of each For example a thoroughly post modern society has elements of premodern and modern in it There is no one exact time when the premodern ended and the modern began each society reached them differently Western Europe entered the modern era in the sixteen hundreds while the rest of the world was still premodern Even now most industrialized countries are post modern yet most of the Third World is modern or even premodern The premodern phase spans a huge amount of time from prehistory until the rise of modern institutions The premodern can further be divided into two periods before and after settled agriculture Before a society adopts settled agriculture they live of the land hunting and gathering The political organization of such groups is roughly like a wolf pack there is a dominate leader figure not necessarily male that leads a more or less egalitarian community An excellent example of hunter-gatherers is the Kung bushmen of the Kalahari dessert The Kung live in small family groups in an extremely hostile environment yet they have adapted Since they do not cultivate plants for food there is no point in owning a parcel of land Each small tribe can support itself on its surrounding land with resources to spare Private ownership of land is unherad of Since the technology of the Kung is rudimentary everyone in the tribe has the same skills at manufacturing as everyone else If one member of the tribe wishes to make a loincloth he simply makes it himself every member of the tribe can exactly this There is no way to differentiate status everyone has exactly the same skills The division of labor between man and women is slight Both take an active role in feeding the family the man
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