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An American novelist and short-story writer born in Oak Park Illinois one of the great American writers of the 20th century The son of a country doctor Hemingway worked as a reporter for the Kansas City Star after graduating from high school in 1917 During World War I he served as an ambulance driver in France and in the Italian infantry and was wounded just before his 19th birthday Later while working in Paris as a correspondent for the Toronto Star he became involved with the expatriate literary and artistic circle surrounding Gertrude Stein During the Spanish Civil War Hemingway served as a correspondent on the loyalist side He fought in World War II and then settled in Cuba in 1945 In 1954 Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature After his expulsion from Cuba by the Castro regime he moved to Idaho He was increasingly plagued by ill health and mental problems and in July 1961 he committed suicide by shooting himself 2 Hemingways fiction usually focuses on people living essential dangerous livessoldiers fishermen athletes bullfighterswho meet the pain and difficulty of their existence with stoic courage His celebrated literary style influenced by Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein is direct terse and often monotonous yet particularly suited to his elemental subject matter 3 Hemingways first books Three Stories and Ten Poems 1923 In Our Time short stories 1924 and The Torrents of Spring a novel 1926 attracted attention primarily because of his literary style With the publication of The Sun Also Rises 1926 he was recognized as the spokesman of the lost generation so called by Gertrude Stein The novel concerns a group of psychologically bruised disillusioned expatriates living in postwar Paris who take psychic refuge in such immediate physical activities as eating drinking traveling brawling and lovemaking 4 His next important novel A Farewell to Arms 1929 tells of a tragic wartime love affair between an ambulance driver and an English nurse
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