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There are three main theories of development that I shall discuss in this assignment Cognitive the main theorist being Piaget 1896 1980 The Psychosocial Theory Erikson 1902 1994 and The Psychosexual of Freud 1856 1939 Cognitive Psychology draws the comparison between the human mind and a computer suggesting that we like the computer process the information we acquire from around us and then react accordingly Hearnshaw 1987 claims that Cognitive Psychology is both one of the oldest and also one of the newest parts of Psychology cited in T Malim 1994 Information is collected through our senses ie vision touch smell etc and then processed through our brain Cognitive Psychologists largely seek explanations of Cognitive development memory attention artificial intelligence perception and social cognition The methods used are usually Laboratory experiments under controlled circumstances ie memory tests and Case studies Piaget J 1896-1980 carried out case studies on his own children to study the stages of cognitive development Piaget concluded that the child was an organism which adapts to the environment he also studied with the opinion that all children went through the same set stages of development and that there were no individual differences Piagets Stages of Development - The Sensorimotor stage 0-2 - Early in the sensorimotor stage the child is entirely egocentric everything is an extension to the self they cant distinguish themselves from their environment The child has no concept of past or future all it is aware of is the here and now The child relies entirely on its senses ie sight hearing touch It is believed by Cognitive Psychologists that To begin with a baby will rely on in-built behaviours for sucking crawling and watching as cited in Moonie N 1995 A child does not understand that an object does not cease to exist when it is out of sight However in contradiction Bower Wishart 1972 used infrared cameras to see what the child does when
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