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The idea of forced air induction by turbine or turbo is not new and has its mass production roots in WWII fighter planes What is new however is its application to passenger automobiles Unlike a near constant high RPM fighter engine an automobile requires wide-open throttle WOT power availability throughout its entire operating range Previous automotive turbo applications acted like an on-off power switch with a five second delay decreasing drivability rather than providing the smooth linear powerband of a normally aspirated engine Because the turbine is in a fixed position in the exhaust stream it was plagued with sometimes uncontrolled production from the compressor at high engine speeds commonly referred to as boost creep and a significant decrease fuel economy versus a similar but naturally aspirated engine The Garret Aviation produced VNT-25 solved all of these problems with its innovative Variable Nozzle Turbine Hands down it is the most advanced turbo ever mass-produced and it was the first of its kind on production carsOne of the most talked about problems with turbo charged engines is the lengthy time it takes for the turbo itself to accelerate to operational speeds This is commonly referred to as turbo lag or turbo spool up time Under WOT turbo lag results in a seemingly underpowered engine that suddenly comes to life as a delayed tire melting rush of acceleration Previously turbo lag was limited by decreasing the size of the turbo itself This resulted in lower rotating mass and more importantly a smaller cross sectional area which accelerated exhaust gasses at lower engine speeds Although the turbo is able to spool quicker due to its size for the same reason its ability to move and compress large amounts of air efficiently is significantly reduced Inherently a smaller turbo will produce less maximum horsepower than if it were replaced by larger turbo on the same enginePrevious turbochargers also used a fixed position turbine that powered the centrifugal compressor directly
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