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To understand Aristotles argument in Physics ii 8 that nature is among the causes that are for something 198b10 it is first necessary to understand exactly what Aristotle means when he refers to nature When Aristotle uses the word nature it applies to any and all things that are by nature without exception Lang 40 According to Aristotle natural things are unique because each of them has within itself a principle of motion and stability in place in growth and decay or in alteration Physics ii 1 192b14-15 Aristotle finds that only certain things have such inner sources of motion Sachs 56 and these forms of nature include animals and plants their parts and the four elements earth air fire and water Lang 40 It is important to note however that things made up of the four elements such as a statue that is made of earth and water are not considered natural Only the elements that it consists of are considered natural In oth er words a statue is not natural because it is a statue its elements are natural because they are elements and not because they make up a statue It is also important to note that when Aristotle refers to the internal principle of motion or change he implies that this internal principle belongs to a being ie a tree or a human being in its own right and not coincidentally Aristotle establishes a method in Physics ii 4-6 of determining whether something is either coincidental or the opposite of coincidental Physics portrays that the opposite of coincidental is teleological and something that is teleological is an occurrence that takes place in order to achieve a purposeful end The method by which one can determine whether something is either teleological or coincidental begins with the observation of a good result This observation leads to two questions was there a cause that yielded this good result And if so does that
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