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The next five articles have a few topics in common Hormone replacement therapy which shows to decrease menopausal symptoms but increase risk of hormone dependent cancers Using vitamins and other natural compounds to decrease risk of certain chronic degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis Phytoestrogens which are a natural form of estrogen with both anti-estrogen and estrogen effects which are beneficial for different body tissues Maroulis GBAlternatives to Estrogen Replacement Therapy Annals New York Academy of Sciences Oct 1999 413-415 Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Selective estrogen receptor modulators SERM influence different tissues such as bone heart blood vessels breast uterus vagina and brain tissues in different ways This is seen through their effect of binding on the estrogen receptor The two kinds of estrogen receptors are alpha- estrogen receptors and beta- receptors and they vary throughout the body After binding to the receptor they are categorized as follows Type I-IV anti-estrogens type I prevents receptor DNA interaction type II inactivates the receptor type III causes a partial agonistic effect and type IV allows conformation of the receptor so that it can bring transcription on a certain number of estrogen-responsive genes tamoxifen A type III anti-estrogen called Raloxifene stabilizes receptor interactions putting positive effects on the receptor It creates both agonistic TAF1 and antagonistic TAF 2 activity Raloxifene has recently been marketed for use in postmenopausal women in need of estrogen replacement therapy A dose of 60 mg of Raloxifene shows to prevent bone loss lower LDL lower cholesterol lower triglycerides reduces hot flushes reduce vaginal atrophy and increase the risk of venous thrombosis This is primarily a drug for women with risk to getting breast cancer Unfortunately there is no ideal SERM that can act estrogenically and as an agonist on the estrogen receptors of the brain bone cardiovascular system and vagina while having antie-strogenic activity in the breast and uterus Phytoestrogens Phytoestrogens
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