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The Biomechanics of Running The Effects Running Surfaces have on Injury The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the influence that sport surfaces have on injury It may help to understand how specific sports surfaces effect athletes while listing the advantages and disadvantages of such sports surfaces to the runner Running surfaces cause many sports and exercise injuries because of the frequency of contact between the shoe and the surface Changes in surface characteristics can alter not only the ground reaction force but also the activation patterns of the major leg muscles This type of sports surface has both positive and negative effects on the performer A change of surface may necessitate a modification of technique The change of force acting on the performer alters the type of injury This paper will examine the different characteristics the biomechanics as well as the injury aspects of sports surfaces Characteristics of Sport Surfaces Sport surfaces are often complex structures with several layers all of which contribute to the overall behavior of the surface Friction and traction are characteristics that are directly related to the behavior of surfaces for sport and exercise and have the greatest association with injury Bartlett 1997 The friction or traction force between a shoe or other object and a surface is the force component peripheral to the surface Bloom 1997 In friction of smooth materials the force is generated by force locking and the maximum friction force depends on the coefficient of sliding friction u between the two materials in contact Traction is the term used when the force is generated by interlocking of the contacting objects such as spikes penetrating a Tartan track known as form locking Bartlett 1997 This friction or traction force is particularly important in running which the coefficient of friction or traction should exceed 10 and for changes of direction such as swerves and turns FerrisLiangFarley1999 For sports surfaces the coefficient
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