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11 The concept of deictic centre Deixis deals with the words and expressions whose reference relies entirely on the circumstances of the utterance For that reason these special expressions and their meaning in discourse can only be understood in light of these circumstances The term deictic centre underlines that the deictic term has to relate to the situation exactly at the point where the utterance is made or the text is written One could even say that the deictic centre is the unmarked anchorage point from which the utterance is made To decode the meaning of a sentence we use a navigation system In our day-to-day conversational exchanges the speaker does not consciously use deictic expressions as well as the adressee usually understands the utterance immediately meaning that the adressee does not need much time to think about an utterance before understanding the message Deixis makes discourse easier and more effective giving us a means to pass more information in less time Nevertheless there are certain situations making an interpretation difficult or even impossible mostly when we only get chunks of information and therefore lack context If for example a person tells a story and forgets to give the essential information a deictic term refers to we will grow aware of the weakness the deictic system features Or if the fax machine just receives the second page of a letter beginning with Then he was quite embarrassed about it - the adressee will never be able to guess what then he and it stands for Similar gaps arise if we read about an utterance made in the past and lack information about the references Although the adressee at that time could easily have understood the sense we may not be capable of getting the original meaning Even if we knew the context in detail this might not be sufficient to understand discourse for example if a special gesture is made when pointing at
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