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Human Genome Project international scientific collaboration the goal of which is to gain a basic understanding of the entire genetic content or genome of a human being see Genetics Heredity This genetic information is found in each cell of the body encoded in the chemical deoxyribonucleic acid DNA The project is intended to identify all the genes in the nucleus of a human cell to establish by a process known as mapping where those genes are located on the chromosomes in the nucleus and to determine by a process known as sequencing the order of the DNAs chemical subunits encoding the genetic informationThe ultimate goal of genomic mapping and sequencing is to associate specific human traits and inherited diseases with particular genes at precise locations on the chromosomes The successful completion of the genome project promises to revolutionize both therapeutic and preventive medicine by providing insights into the basic biochemical processes that underlie many human diseasesThe idea of undertaking a coordinated study of the human genome arose from a series of scientific conferences held between 1985 and 1987 The Human Genome Project began in earnest in the United States in 1990 with the expansion of funding from the National Institutes of Health NIH and the Department of Energy DOE Many other nations have official human genome research programs as part of this informal collaborationThe human genome is composed of about 50000 to 100000 genes located on the 23 pairs of chromosomes in a human cell and each including many chemical compounds called bases DNA codes genetic information in base pairs The DNA being analyzed in the Human Genome Project typically comes from small samples of blood or tissue obtained from many different people Although the genes in each persons genome are made up of unique DNA sequences the average variation in the genomes of two different people is estimated to be much less than 1 percentWhen completed the Human Genome Project will have generated a
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