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The purpose of this essay is to provide an overview and references on the various methods that can be used to measure brand knowledge brand awareness and brand image brand equity and brand value This note provides a short definition of each concept and illustrations of the most widely-used measurement techniques Once you know what you want to measure it is important to look at the original sources cited to understand how to properly use these techniques Kellers 2003 excellent book also provides detailed information on each concept and its measurement 1 Brand knowledge Brand knowledge refers to brand awareness whether and when consumers know the brand and brand image what are the associations that consumers have with the brand Keller 2001 The different dimensions of brand knowledge can be classified in a pyramid adapted from Keller 2001 in which each lower-level element provides the foundations of the higher-level element In other words brand attachment stems from rational and emotional brand evaluations which derive from functional and emotional brand associations and which necessitate brand awareness Figure 1 The Brand Knowledge Pyramid 11 Brand Awareness Brand awareness measures the accessibility of the brand in memory Brand awareness can be measured through brand recall or brand recognition Brand recall reflects the ability of consumers to retrieve the brand from memory when given the product category the needs fulfilled by the category or some other type of probe as a cue Brand recognition reflects the ability of consumers to confirm prior exposure to the brand Brand recall Measures Please name all the brands of beveragessoft drinkscarbonated soft drinks you can think of Please name all the brands of beverages you can think of that you would bring to an INSEAD party Possible results 15 of consumers think of Orangina when asked to provide the name of a soft drink versus 30 for Coca-Cola Orangina is in the top 3
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