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Does Aristotle establish a clear link between substance and essence Aristotle was born in Stageira in north Greece in 384 BC He firstly trained in medicine and then in 367 went to Athens to study philosophy with Plato Aristotle opposed some of Platos teachings In 338 Aristotle became tutor of Alexander the Great after Alexander conquered Athens Aristotle returned to Athens and set up a school of his own Lyceum When Alexanders died Athens rebelled against Macedonian rule and Aristotle risked being killed because of his political situation To avoid being put to death he fled to the island of Euboea where he eventually died Plato believed that ultimate reality was reflected in Ideas or eternal forms knowable only through reflection and reason however Aristotle differed from this and saw ultimate reality in physical objects which were knowable through experience He believed objects were composed of their matter and of a reality their form he believed organisms composed of the same for example a seed or embryo has the potential to grow into a animal or plant Aristotle believed that the form of the living was identified with the soul Plants also were identified by the soul however animals had higher souls as well as humans Aristotle studied the development of animals and focused on there distinguishes for example he distinguished whales from fish His thoughts on animal observation were not confirmed till centuries after his death but his principles for biological investigation such as animals functions have made him known as no doubt the finder of the science of biology Aristotle differed from other philosophical thinkers mainly because of his belief that the universe had never had a beginning and would never end he believed that it was eternal Aristotle also viewed changes as mere cycles for example he looked at water and how it evaporates and then falls again and he concluded that although there is a possible cycle or flow
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