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EXPERIMENT 1 Aim To range the metals copper lead silver and zinc together with hydrogen Start with the strongest reducing agent Hypothesis The nobler a metal is the worse reducing agent Apparatusrequirements Sandpaper strips of zinc lead silver and copper solutions containing aqueous Zn2 Pb2 Cu2 and Ag ions 02 M hydrochloric acid 50 M emery paper test-tubes Method Burnish the three metal strips to get a shiny surface after drop a drop of each of the metal ion solutions on the cleaned metal strips Wash it off after a few minutes and if there is patina present record it To test the reaction between the solids and hydrogen H ions a small piece of each metal was dropped into a test-tube with 05 M hydrochloric acid Results The reaction formulas of the metals and the ions are as following Zns2Haq-gtZn2 H2 ZnsPb2aq-gtZn2 Pb ZnsCu2aq-gtZn2 Cu Zns2Agaq-gtZn2 2Ag PbsCu2aq-gtPb2 Cu Pbs2Agaq-gtPb2 Ag Cus2Agaq-gtCu2 2Ag Conclusions Zinc is the strongest reducing agent Zinc loses electrons most easily and is therefore oxidised After zinc comes lead followed by copper while silver has least reducing ability of the metals studied in this lab The reducing ability of the metals was arrived at from the observations of patina formation on the metal plates If the positive metal ions in the solutions are less powerful reducing agents then the metal in the plate will be reduced and hence form a deposition of solid metal eg Zn Pb2-gt Zn2 Pb EXPERIMENT 2 Aim To range the halogens bromine chlorine and iodine with the strongest oxidising agent first Hypothesis A strong oxidising agent is a species that easily gains electrons and is hence easily reduced The ionisation energy of the halogens Cl2 I2 Br2 decreases down the group which means that going down the group the elements gain electrons less easily Since a strong oxidising agent easily gains electrons
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