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A state of nature is a hypothetical state of being within a society that defines such a way that particular community behaves within itself English philosopher Thomas Hobbes proclaimed that A state of nature is a state of war By this Hobbes means that every human being given the absence of government or a contract between other members of a society would act in a war-like state in which each man would be motivated by desires derived solely with the intention of maximizing his own utility He claims that acts of kindness charity and benevolence are always actions that the performer believes will result in a beneficial consequence for himself Hobbes basis for this argument lies in the concept of reason He writes that human beings are logical creatures and unlike other animals use reason to make all of their decisions Leviathan 2 17 A law dictated by reason that will benefit a man is called a law of nature Hobbes lists three fundamental laws of nature that promote the primary motivation of men which is self-preservation Hobbes believes that all men are equal insofar as that the weakest man has the power to kill the strongest man Thus given that every man is vulnerable to any other man all men have a very strong desire to escape the state where killing each other is acceptable escape the state of nature This can be done simply put by endeavoring peace which coupled with not making war except to defend oneself is the first law of nature Leviathan 1 14 The second law of nature is derived directly from the first It insists that man lay down his right to all things and be contented with so much liberty against other men as he would allow other men liberty against himself Leviathan 1 14 Essentially in the state of nature a man has a right to all things By following this second law of nature
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