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TCP IP TCP IP Is the protocol that the internet runs on it is the basis for all communications on the internet and without it the internet would not exist It was developed by DARPA asa nuclear war proof communications device and soon became much greater Tcp ip is fast becoming the universal standard for networking The Protocol stack Before we examine each layer of TCPIP we should cover a few basic concepts The content size speed and reliability of the network varies depending on its protocols and implementation The term TCPIP Transmission Control ProtocolInternet Protocol actually refers to a whole family of protocols of which TCP and IP are just two Figure 1 contains the standard stack diagram of TCPIP Rather than make protocols monolithic which would mean ftp telnet and gopher would each have a full network protocol implementation including separate copies of kernel code for the devices each protocol uses the designers of TCPIP broke the job of a full network protocol suite into a number of tasks Each layer corresponds to a different facet of communication Conceptually it is useful to envision TCPIP like a ladder Figure 1 The Layers of the TCPIP Protocol Suite The link layer is responsible for communicating with the actual network hardware eg the Ethernet card Data it receives off the network wire it hands to the network layer data it receives from the network layer it puts on the network wire The second the network layer is responsible for figuring out how to get data to its destination The third the transport layer provides data flows for the application layer The fourth the application layer is where users typically interact with the network This is where telnet ftp email IRC etc reside Packets are the basic unit of transmission on the Internet They contain both data and header information Simply put headers generally consist of some combination of checksums
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