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Anti-MatterIntroductionOrdinary matter has negatively charged electrons circling a positively charged nuclei Anti-matter has positively charged electrons - positrons - orbiting a nuclei with a negative charge - anti-protons Only anti-protons and positrons are able to be produced at this time but scientists in Switzerland have begun a series of experiments which they believe will lead to the creation of the first anti-matter element -- Anti-Hydrogen The ResearchEarly scientists often made two mistakes about anti-matter Some thought it had a negative mass and would thus feel gravity as a push rather than a pull If this were so the antiprotons negative massenergy would cancel the protons when they met and nothing would remain in reality two extremely high-energy gamma photons are produced Todays theories of the universe say that there is no such thing as a negative mass The second and more subtle mistake is the idea that anti-water would only annihilate with ordinary water and could safety be kept in say an iron container This is not so it is the subatomic particles that react so destructively and their arrangement makes no difference Scientists at CERN in Geneva are working on a device called the LEAR low energy anti-proton ring in an attempt to slow the velocity of the anti-protons to a billionth of their normal speeds The slowing of the anti-protons and positrons which normally travel at a velocity of that near the speed of light is neccesary so that they have a chance of meeting and combining into anti-hydrogenThe problems with research in the field of anti-matter is that when the anti-matter elements touch matter elements they annihilate each other The total combined mass of both elements are released in a spectacular blast of energy Electrons and positrons come together and vanish into high-energy gamma rays plus a certain number of harmless neutrinos which pass through whole planets without effect Hitting ordinary matter 1 kg of anti-matter explodes with the force of up
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