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Word Count: 370
Colchicine is a highly poisonous water-soluble alkaloid found in plants of the genus Colchicum autumn crocus meadow saffron with the chemical formula C22H25NO6 The chemical name or common name for colchicine is S N-5679-tetrahydro- 123 IO-tetramethoxy-9-oxobenzo alpha heptaien-7-yl acetamide The molecular weight of it is 3992 grams Colchicine has 4 isomerseach pair has either R or S configuration--aS7S-Colchicine is the natural isomer which can interconvert between aR and aS C22H25NO6 molecular weight is 3994426 melting point is 142 degrees Celsius water solubility is less than 10g mL at 21 degrees Celsius pale yellow to greenish crystalline powder photosenstive slowly hyrdolyzes in acidic solution First used over 2000 years ago derived form preparations of Colchicum autumnale First described by Padanius Dioscordes AD 54-68 a Greek surgeon in De Materia Medica currently produced locally by Sigma Uses Treatment of gout Treatment of Familial Mediterranean Fever minimally effective chemotherapy agent research use as an antimitotic agent new uses being explored - chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis - Sweets syndrome - pediatric pericarditis - constipation Symptoms Nausea diarrhea pancytopenia alopecia weakness respiratory distress - potentially fatal Is divided into 3 phases Stage I is the GI Phase - occurs within hours of ingestion Stage II is the multi-phase stage - cardiovascular insufficiency - respiratory insufficiency - metabolic effects - neuromuscular effects - hematologic effects Stage III is the recovery phase - occurs 7 to 10 days after ingestion - marked by alopecia - rebound leukocytosis Mechanism of toxicity Metabolized in the liver - facilitated by cytochrome P450 - undergoes deacetylation and hydrolysis - converted to oxydicolchicine Recirculated in Liver Significant amount absorbed in the digestive tract peak plasma concentration reached within 30 minutes to 2 hours large VOD
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