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Introduction Diabetes Mellitus disease in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin a hormone that helps the bodys tissues absorb glucose so it can be used as a source of energy Diabetes Mellitus differs from the less common Diabetes Insipidus which is caused by lack of the hormone vasopressin that controls the amount of urine secreted Diabetes is most common in adults over 45 years of age in people who are overweight or physically inactive in individuals who have an immediate family member with diabetes and in minority populations including African Americans Hispanics and Native Americans The highest rate of diabetes in the world occurs in Native Americans More women than men have been diagnosed with the disease In diabetes mellitus without an appropriate level of insulin to help absorption glucose builds up in the blood because it cannot enter the cells When the blood passes through the kidneys the kidneys cannot absorb all of the excess glucose This excess glucose spills into the urine accompanied by water and electrolytes This causes frequent urination to rid the body of the excess water Two Types of Diabetes 1 Type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus IDDM the body does not produce insulin or it only produces it in very small quantities Symptoms usually appear suddenly and in individuals under 20 years of age Type I diabetes is considered autoimmune disease because the immune system attacks and destroys cells in the pancreas known as beta cells that produce insulin Untreated Type I diabetes affects the metabolism of fat because the body cannot convert glucose into energy and breaks down stored fat for fuel This produces increasing amounts of acidic compounds called ketone bodies in the blood which interfere with respiration 2 Type II or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM the body either makes insufficient amounts of insulin or is unable to use it Type II accounts for 90
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