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The immediate source of energy for muscular contraction is the high-energy phosphate compound called adenosine triphosphate ATP Although ATP is not the only energy-carrying molecule in the cell it is the most important one and without sufficient amounts of ATP most cells die quickly The three main parts of an ATP molecule are an adenine portion a ribose portion and three phosphates linked together The formation of ATP occurs by combining adenosine diphosphate ADP and inorganic phosphate Pi This formation requires a large amount of energy to and it is called a high-energy bond In order for a muscle to contract the enzyme ATPase breaks the ATP bond and releases energy which is used to do work ATP is the energy produced from the breakdown of food into a useable form of energy required by cellsMuscle cells store limited amounts of ATP Therefore because muscular exercise requires a constant supply of ATP to provide the energy needed for contraction metabolic pathways must exist in the cell to be able to produce ATP rapidly Muscle cells can produce ATP by three metabolic pathways creatine phosphate CP formation of ATP formation of ATP through the degragation of glucose or glycogen glycolysis and oxidative formation of ATP The formation of ATP through the CP pathway or glycolysis is called anaerobic metabolism because they do not use oxygen Oxidative formation of ATP by the use of oxygen is called aerobic metabolismAs rapidly as ATP is broken down to ADP and Pi during exercise ATP is reformed through the CP reaction However muscle cells only contain small amounts of CP so the total amount of ATP formed through this action is limited The combination of stored ATP and CP is called the ATP-CP system and provides energy for muscle contraction during short-term high-intensity exercise CP is reformed only while you are recovering from exercise For this process to occur there has to be ATP presentA second metabolic pathway capable
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