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Computer graphics is the use of computers to produce pictorial images The images produced can be printed documents or animated motion pictures but the term computer graphics refers particularly to images displayed on a video display screen or display monitor These screens can display graphic as well as alphanumeric data A computer-graphics system basically consists of a computer to store and manipulate images a display screen various input and output devices and a graphics software package for example a program that enables a computer to process graphic images by means of mathematical language These programs enable the computer to draw color shade and manipulate the images held in its memory The programs may be broken down into four major categories first of all the design computer-aided design CAD systems in which the computer is used as a tool in designing objects ranging from automobiles to bridges to computer chips by providing an interactive drawing tool and an interface to simulation and analysis tools for the engineer secondly fine arts in which artists use the computer screen as a medium to create images of impressive beauty cinematographic special effects animated cartoons and television commercials thirdly scientific visualization in which simulations of scientific events--such as the birth of a star or the development of a tornado--are exhibited pictorially and in motion so as to provide far more insight into the phenomena than would tables of numbers and lastly human-computer interfaces A computer displays images on the phosphor-coated surface of a graphics display screen by means of an electron beam that sweeps the screen many times each second Those portions of the screen energized by the beam emit light and changes in the intensity of the beam determine their brightness and hue The brightness of the resulting image fades quickly however and must be continuously refreshed by the beam typically 30 times per second Graphics software programs enable a user to draw color shade and manipulate an
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