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Word Count: 647
But it is not the mere occurrence of disagreements that tells against the objectivity of values Disagreements on questions in history or biology or cosmology does not show that there are no objective issues in these fields for investigators to disagree about But such scientific disagreement results from speculative inferences or explanatory hypotheses based on inadequate evidence and it is hardly plausible to interpret moral disagreement in the same way Disagreement about moral codes seems to reflect peoples adherence to and participation in different ways of life The causal connection seems to be mainly that way around it is that people approve of monogamy because they participate in a monogamous way of life rather than that they participate in a monogamous way of life because they approve of monogamy Furthermore individual perception of the world by people precludes the possibility of an all-encompassing universal code of ethics As has been argued by JL Mackie we project ethical properties onto the world In other words we see things as having ethical properties when in fact empirically proven they do not Based on this we can say that a conscious person will project what he interprets based on what he thinks he saw because each person will manifest a different perception then will necessarily project differing ethical properties Philosophers generally hold that moral theory includes two components theories of the good and theories of the right Theories of the good attempt to understand just what it is that constitutes goodness or badness while theories of the right deal with what constitutes right behavior and in particular how individuals or groups should behave with respect to the good A complete moral theory requires both but a given theory of the good could be coupled with any one of several theories of the right to produce some particular variant of ethical theory Consequentialist and nonconsequentialist theories are theories of the right Consequentialism is the view that whatever values
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