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Resistance Is Futile The Dilemma of Antibiotic-Resistance Has man pinned the arm behind the back of Mother Nature Have humans finally won this terrible pathogenic onslaught Apparently notthe Era of Epidemics has risen once again and it looks as if humans are being bumped off the top of the food chain Bacteria are mutating into antibiotic-resistant monsters One of the main reasons why this is is because of the mass antibiotic misuse that increases the chance of bacterial DNA mutation Bacteria like all living things must adapt to survive DNA mutation is often a mechanism for adaptation Our misunderstanding and ignorant use of this miracle drug diminishes the miracle and results in the outburst of anti-microbial invulnerability What humans need is not another miracle drug but knowledge on the prevention of antibiotic misuse First what are antibiotics Antibiotics are chemical agents created by certain organisms such as fungi or molds which are capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of bacteria They act by interfering with the nucleic acid synthesis peptidoglycan synthesis protein synthesis or the membrane integrity within the bacterial cell2 The prokaryotic bacterial cell does not have a nucleus however its genes are composed mainly of two elements chromosomes and plasmids Plasmids are circular pieces of genetic material that replicate complementary to the chromosome and are often the carrier of mutated genes that bestow resistance to antibiotics3 Bacterial proliferation depends greatly on DNA and RNA synthesis One of the enzymes involved in bacterial DNA replication is DNA gyrase When DNA is being transcripted and replicated the helix must be unzipped in order to be read and it cannot bear any kinks or loops lest it should be severely damaged or even broken by the tension of the twist and thus cannot be read and transcripted DNA gyrase relaxes the coiled strands and smoothes out the strand by breaking down the bond and releasing enzymes to relax the nick4 As we can see DNA
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