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Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas to adapt effectively to the environment to learn from experience to engage in various forms of reasoning to overcome obstacles by taking thought Concepts of intelligence are attempts to clarify and organize this complex event Indeed when two dozen prominent theorists were recently asked to define intelligence they gave two dozen somewhat different definitions Sternberg Detterman 1986 Such disagreements are not cause for dismay Scientific research rarely begins with fully agreed definitions though it may eventually lead to them The one description of intelligence that most psychologists would agree on would probably be David Wechslers definition of intelligence as the global capacity to act purposefully to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment Coon 2000 Tests are used for many purposes such as selection diagnosis and evaluation Many of the most widely used tests are not intended to measure intelligence itself but some closely related construct scholastic aptitude school achievement specific abilities etc Such tests are especially important for selection purposes For preparatory school its the SSAT for college the SAT or ACT for graduate school the GRE for medical school the MOAT for law school the LSAT for business school the GMAT Scores on intelligence-related tests matter and the stakes can be high More familiar measures of general intelligence such as the Wechsler tests and the Stanford-Binet include many different types of items both verbal and nonverbal Test-takers may be asked to give the meanings of words to complete a series of pictures to indicate which of several words does not belong with the others and the like Their performance can then be scored to yield several subscores as wel l as an overall score By convention overall intelligence test scores are usually converted to a scale in which the mean is 100 and the standard deviation is 15 The term IQ is often used to describe
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