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Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form It is based on statistical theory which is a branch of applied mathematics Within statistical theory randomness and uncertainty are modelled by probability theory Because one aim of statistics is to produce the best information from available data some authors consider statistics a branch of decision theory Statistical practice includes the planning summarizing and interpreting of observations allowing for variability and uncertainty Origin The word statistics comes from the modern Latin phrase statisticum collegium lecture about state affairs from which came the Italian word statista meaning statesman or politician cf status and the German Statistik originally designating the analysis of data about the state It acquired the meaning of the collection and classification of data generally in the early nineteenth century It was introduced into English by Sir John Sinclair thus the original principal purpose of statistics was data to be used by governmental and often centralized administrative bodies The collection of data about states and localities continues largely through national and international statistical services in particular censuses provide regular information about the population Today however the use of statistics has broadened far beyond the service of a state or government to include such areas as business natural and social sciences and medicine among others The earliest seeds arose in geometric diagrams and in the making of maps to aid in navigation and exploration By the 16th century techniques and instruments for precise observation and measurement of physical quantities were well-developed- the beginnings of the husbandry of visualization The 17th century saw great new growth in theory and the dawn of practice- the rise of analytic geometry theories of errors of measurement the birth of probability theory and the beginnings of demographic statistics and political arithmetic Over the 18th and 19th centuries numbers pertaining to people-social moral medical and economic statistics began to collect
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