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CELLULAR METABOLISM AND FERMENTATION Glycolysis the Universal Process Anaerobic Pathways Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis the Universal Process Nine reactions each catalyzed by a specific enzyme makeup the process we call glycolysis ALL organisms have glycolysis occurring in their cytoplasm At steps 1 and 3 ATP is converted into ADP inputting energy into the reaction as well as attaching a phosphate to the glucose At steps 6 and 9 ADP is converted into the higher energy ATP At step 5 NAD is converted into NADH H The process works on glucose a 6-C until step 4 splits the 6-C into two 3-C compounds Glyceraldehyde phosphate GAP also known as phosphoglyceraldehyde PGAL is the more readily used of the two Dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be converted into GAP by the enzyme Isomerase The end of the glycolysis process yields two pyruvic acid 3-C molecules and a net gain of 2 ATP and two NADH per glucose Under anaerobic conditions the absence of oxygen pyruvic acid can be routed by the organism into one of three pathways lactic acid fermentation alcohol fermentation or cellular anaerobic respiration Humans cannot ferment alcohol in their own bodies we lack the genetic information to do so These biochemical pathways with their myriad reactions catalyzed by reaction-specific enzymes all under genetic control are extremely complex We will only skim the surface at this time and in this course Alcohol fermentation is the formation of alcohol from sugar Yeast when under anaerobic conditions convert glucose to pyruvic acid via the glycolysis pathways then go one step farther converting pyruvic acid into ethanol a C-2 compound Fermentation of ethanol Image from WH Freeman and Sinauer Associates used by permission Many organisms will also ferment pyruvic acid into other chemicals such as lactic acid Humans ferment lactic acid in muscles where oxygen becomes depleted resulting in localized anaerobic conditions This lactic acid causes the muscle stiffness couch-potatoes feel after beginning exercise programs The
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