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INTRODUCTION Ecology is the study of living things interacting with its environment other species and its own kind Its a study of all external condition and factors both biotic living and a-biotic nonliving that affect an organism To carry out this study scientists observe different ecosystems forests deserts grasslands oceans or any kind of interaction between organisms and their surroundings or with each other which are called ecosystem effects There are four components within an ecosystem The a-biotic component which determines the types of organisms found there the producers the consumers and the decomposers These components cause continual change within the system the exchange of materials between the living and nonliving All organisms living within an ecosystem are dependent on other living and nonliving organisms for survival and continued growth Two basic kinds of processes must occur in an ecosystem a cycling of chemical elements and a flow of energy The flow of energy is from the external environment through a series of organisms and back to the external environment To preserve the system we must try to conserve the specie or manage the natural resources so that they are sustainable THE OCEAN The ocean is the great body of water that surrounds each continent Covering more than 70 percent of the earths surface it contains 97 percent of all the water on the earth and is recognized as the earths greatest single unifying system Studies say that the sea was formed due in part of the continental drift This theory states that the continents were once a single great mass of land surrounded with one body of ocean The mass broke off into separate continents slowly drifting apart That explains why these continents can perfectly fit together like a jigsaw puzzle The continental drift theory was questioned and later scientist formed a new theory called sea-floor spreading which explained the forces that caused the continents
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