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The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram or the H-R Diagram for short is a graph which plots stars according to their temperature and absolute magnitude This graph reveals a pattern which in fact is quite interesting The H-R Diagram is named for the two astronomers Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Russell who discovered this pattern of stars These two astronomers independently discovered that comparing magnitudes and spectral class color of stars yielded a lot of information about them One key purpose of the H-R diagram is to show the relationship between temperature and absolute magnitude of stars The type of temperature measurement used is Kelvin where the zero point is equal to -27316 C On the H-R Diagram the temperature of degrees Kelvin ranges from 3000 to 30000 The absolute magnitude of stars on the H-R Diagram ranges from 15 to -10 Absolute magnitude is how bright stars would appear if they were positioned at 326 light years away from earth On this scale the lower the number the brighter the star Thus a start with an absolute magnitude of -10 would be much brighter than a star with an absolute magnitude of 15 The two astronomers found many patterns after developing their graph They found that 90 of stars graphed fell within a band that ran through the middle of the graph These stars range from cool dim red stars at the lower right of the H-R Diagram to hot bright blue stars at the upper left corner of the H-R Diagram The stars that fall into to this band are known as main-sequence stars Stars such as the sun and almost every start visible in the night sky fall within this band of main sequence stars There is another group of stars which are cool and bright that appear near the upper right corner of the H-R Diagram These stars are very large and therefore have very big surface areas These large surface areas give off large
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