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Cinematography is the art of filmmaking It is a technical practice which has evolved into an aesthetic expression that portrays customs or tendencies of society Mauer Mornik nd Cinematography is the heart and backbone of cinema Without the scientific advancements made early on motion pictures wold not have advanced beyond the simple technology of early instruments such as the zoetrope George Horner invented the zoetrope in 1834 It consists of a simple drum with an open top supported on a central axis A sequence of hand-drawn pictures on strips of paper are placed around the inner bottom of the drum Slots are cut at equal distances around the outer surface of the drum just above where the picture strips were to be positioned Elsaesser Barker November 1990 When the device is spun it creates the illusion of movement From this illusion of movement inspiration for advancement to technologies that would create the illusion of reality were born Technical and artistic innovations by cameramen have always been a major factor in the development of movies and their requirements have been met at every turn by the manufactures of cameras filmstocks lighting equipment and other necessities of the trade Turner February 19 2002 Gregg Toland was born in Charleston Illinois on May 29th 1904 When Toland was a child he attended technical school intending on being an electrical engineer The desire to make technological advancements never left Toland as he switched emphasis from electronics to film At the age of 15 he got a job at Fox Films as an office boy A year later he became assistant cameraman on Al St Johns two-reel comedies From this position he quickly rose to the position of second cameraman to Arthur Edeson Edeson was a former actor turned cinematographer who is responsible for such films as The Invisible Man and Frankenstein Ankeny nd This is where Toand began to explore deep-focus techniques Working up the ranks
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