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Word Count: 551
Communism began in the early 19th century in response to the problematic beginnings of modern capitalism At that time communism was the basis for many utopian settlements most however eventually failed These small-scale experiments into communism were done with voluntary cooperation with everyone participating in the governing process Later Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels greatly helped spur renewed interest in a communistic society with their book Communist Manifesto In their writing Marx and Engels tried to analyze modern society at that time which they described as capitalistic They showed disagreement between ideals and reality in modern society Marx argued that every social system in the past has been a device by which the rich and powerful few could live by the toll and misery of the powerless many They believed that the capitalist system too was flawed and therefore bound to destroy itself like many of the communistic experiments had done years before It was thought that with the collapse of the capitalism society would conclude in a political revolution in which the huge number of poor would rebel against their oppressors The revolution would do away with private ownership of the means of production Society would be run by and for the people Marx and Engels expected that this movement would happen in the most highly industrialized nations of Western Europe the only part of the world where the conditions were ripe for these developments This had not happened though and capitalism though all its shortcomings had been retained in Western Europe Yet in other nations that lacked the conditions they considered essential for communism to thrive Marx followers had attained power The first of these was Russia a huge poor nation that was just beginning to acquire an industrial base The people had almost no experience in political participation In 1917 that rule was swept away The Communist Party led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin succeeded From the
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