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Word Count: 498
The first decades 1830s to 1860s of Queen Victorias reign produced a vigorous and varied body of literature that attempted to come to terms with the current transformations of English society but writers in the latter decades 1870s to 1900 withdrew into AESTHETICISM a preoccupation with sensation as an end in itself Confronted by the shift from an agricultural to an industrial urban society and troubled by the erosion of traditional religious beliefs the early Victorian writers held to a moral aesthetic a belief that literature should provide both an understanding of and fresh values for a new society Novelists of the period explored the difficulty of forming a personal identity in a world in which traditional social structures appeared to be dissolving With compassionate realism George ELIOT in such works as ADAM BEDE described the slow dissolution of a rural community The many powerful novels of Charles DICKENS William Makepeace THACKERAY and Anthony TROLLOPE focused on the isolation of the individual within the city Charlotte BRONTE in JANE EYRE dramatized the particular problems of creating a female identity Among the writers of early Victorian nonfiction Thomas CARLYLE in Past and Present 1843 argued for the re-creation in industrial England of the lost sense of community between social classes In contrast John Stuart MILL in ON LIBERTY spoke for the fullest development of the individual through freedom from social restraint The foremost art critic of the time John RUSKIN articulated the assumptions of many contemporary critics by showing in The Stones of Venice 1851-53 the interdependence of great art and a societys moral health The major early Victorian poets too took the role of secular prophets often expressing a longing for the free play of imaginative life For Alfred Lord TENNYSON the longing found ambivalent expression in his early lyrics his major work In Memoriam 1850 translated personal grief into an affirmation of religious faith Matthew ARNOLD particularly in his poem Empedocles on Etna 1852
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