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The Internet is an extension of a computer network originally formed in the United States during the 1960s by the Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPA Working under contract to the US Department of Defense ARPA initially connected computers at the Stanford Research Institute in California the University of California at Los Angeles UCLA the University of California at Santa Barbara UCSB and the University of Utah This original network the very first computer network was called ARPANET ARPA NETwork Scientists built ARPANET with the intention of creating a network that would still be able to function efficiently if part of the network was damaged This concept was important to military organizations which were studying ways to maintain a working communications network in the event of nuclear war As ARPANET grew in the 1970s with more and more universities and institutions connecting to it users found it necessary to establish standards for the way that data was transmitted over the network To meet the needs of data transmission standards computer scientists developed the Transmission Control Protocol TCP and the Internet Protocol IP During the 1970s various government scientific and academic groups developed their own networks Examples include the Department of Energys DoE Magnetic Fusion Energy Network MFENet the High Energy Physics NETwork HEPNET and the National Science Foundation NETwork see NSFNET In 1989 English computer scientist Timothy Berners-Lee introduced the World Wide Web Berners-Lee initially designed the WWW to aid communication between physicists who were working in different parts of the world for the European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN As it grew however the WWW revolutionized the use of the Internet During the early 1990s increasingly large numbers of users who were not part of the scientific or academic communities began to use the Internet due in large part to the ability of the WWW to easily handle multimedia documents A major challenge facing the continued growth of the Internet is the
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