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James Prescott Joule December 24 1818 - October 11 1889 was a British physicist who was born in Salford England In 1833 he was sent by his father to be tutored for four years by the famous scientist John Dalton Joule soon became one of the most accurate scientists of his time During 1838 - 1841 when he was working in his fathers brewery he tried to make a much more efficient motor At just 20 years of age after sending a numerous amount of papers to Annals of Electricity one of his letters was finally published It stated that Joule found that in an electromagnetic machine bundles of iron worked much more efficiently than a solid core magnet In early 1839 Joule discovered a law which describes the relationship between currents and electromagnets The equation he produced an equation for this was M E2W 2 Where M represents the magnetic alteration E represents the electric current and W represents the length of the wire In 1840 Joule established Joules Law which states that the heat produced in a wire by an electrical current is proportional to the resistance of the wire multiplied by the square of the current This law is expressed by the equation P I 2R Where P represents the heat produced in a wire by an electrical current I represents the current and R represents the resistance of the wire In 1841 he shifted his study from electromagnets to heat and in 1842 he created a new theory of heat The old theory was that heat was thought to be a substance but his theory was that heat was actually a state of vibration Through his experiments he also noticed that heat could not be destroyed nor created only changed He conducted many experiments in 1843 to determine the mechanical value of heat His last and most famous experiment involved a paddle wheel which was stirred through the water
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