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Narrative Shift Hemingways characters often turn to primitive rituals for comfort Donaldson Vol 13 in Literary Criticism It is at this primitive point in each character when Hemingway employs a narrative shift or shifting the narrators description through another characters point of view In The Short and Happy Life of Francis Macomber by Ernest Hemingway this strategy both adds and detracts from the story in a number of ways First Hemingway utilizes this technique to better the readers sympathy or pathos for the character He felt a sudden white-hot blinding flash explode inside his head and that was all he ever felt Qtd In DiYanni 356 This is a prime example of an emotional appeal that Hemingway throws to the reader Anger sadness and frustration are some of the adjectives that best describe the readers reaction to this scene which marks the demise of Francis Macomber Also he uses a shift in narrative to help the readers understand the inner workings of the primitive mind The lions anger is notably the best example of this He could crouch and not be seen and make them bring the crashing thing close enough so he could make a rush and get the man that held it Qtd In DiYanni 344 Here Hemingway accurately has the narrator translate the lions inner feelings This improves the depth of the story as it helps the reader understand the lions sudden desire to end the gunshots and kill the hunters This primitive thought benefits the readers in that they can relate to the lions sudden rage and rush to kill Although the narrative shift seems to be a successful it also detracts to the story in one major way If the reader is not paying full attention he or she might miss the shift in narration and hence be
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