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I Reflexes - Born with reflexes and skills necessary to sustain life sucking swallowing Morostartle reflex grasping rooting Babinsky stepping looking and perceptual abilities like seeing hearing and smelling II Growth Patterns Cephalocaudel pattern - top to bottom Proximodistal pattern - center out Gross motor skills - large muscle activities walking Fine motor skills - finely tuned movements finger dexterity Average North American newborn is 20 inches long and weighs 75 pounds Infants grow about 1 inch per month during the first year and triple their weight III The Brain see additional handout IV Brains development - 3 processes in the development of neurons cell production - 10-26 weeks after conception 250000 neurons per minute cell migration proximodistal growth pattern Neuron movement from neat the center of the brain cell elaboration - axon and dendrites grow from connections with other cells continues years after birth during infancy dendrite branching is extensive myelination - process in which nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells increasing the speed of information traveling through the nervous system Begins prenatal and continues after birth V Infant States deep sleep regular sleep drowsy alert activity alert and focused attention inflexibility focused SIDS VI Nutrition Infants need to consume about 50 calories for each pound of weight Breast feeding superior to bottle feeding especially important for building up immune system Marasmus - severe protein-calories malnutrition Malnourished infants are shorter in stature and slower in cognitive growth in middle and late childhood VII Sensory and Perceptional Development sensation - physical energy contacts the sensory receptors perception - brain interprets what is sensed visual perception - infants prefer patterns over colors or brightness visual acuity 20200 for newborn by 6 months 20100 visual cliff - demonstrates depth perception research suggests ability to hears exists before birth Cat in the Hat experiment
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