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Word Count: 455
Mitosis evolved in complex plants and animals for growth and repair Mitosis the division of a cell resulting in two identical daughter cells prolongs an organisms life by replacing old dead and damaged cells In complex animals and plants mitosis occurs everywhere except sex cells Meiosis evolved in complex plants and animals to increase variation in offspring and to maintain the number of chromosomes from generation to generation Meiosis occurs in the sex cells of organisms specifically the ovaries and testes in animals and in the pollen and ovules of plants In an organism where n8 the process of mitosis would be the following In interphase the DNA would replicate resulting in 16 chromosomes In prophase two centrioles would move to the poles the spindle starts to form the nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear and the kinetochore fibers attach to the chinetochores During metaphase the chromosomes line up at the equator In anaphase the centromere splits and the chromosomes move to the opposite poles 8 to each pole pulled by the kinetochore fibers on the spindle Lastly during telophase the spindle disappears the nucleolus and nuclear membrane reappear and the cell separates resulting in two new cells exactly like the parent cell each with 8 chromosomes Meiosis in an organism where n8 would be the following During interphase I the 16 chromosomes 2n16 replicate to 32 chromosomes In prophase I centrioles would move to the poles the spindle starts to form the nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear and the kinetochore fibers attach to the chinetochores Most importantly the pairing of homologous chromosomes and crossing over takes place This step is very important in creating variation among offspring Next the homologous pairs line up at the equator in metaphase I In anaphase I the homologues each consisting of two sister chomatids separate however the sister chromatids do not separate During telophase I the spindle disappears the nucleolus and nuclear membrane reappear and the cell separates
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