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CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION All living things are made of the same basic building blocks cells A human is made of 65 trillion cells Cells are everywhere on you skin in your blood and even on your tongue In fact your blood is clear but red blood cells are what make your blood red Most living things are made up of many cells but some are made of only one cell like amebas paramecium fungi protists monerans and bacteria There are two basic types of cells animal cells and plant cells They have some common parts found in both and other parts that are unique to each A cell membrane is found in both plant and animal cells It is the structure that surrounds the cell and protects it Plant cells have a cell wall a rigid structure surrounding the cell membrane Animal cells do not have a cell wall Cytoplasm is the thick jelly-like substance that makes up most of the cell Vacuoles are fluid filled sacs in the cell The vacuoles contain stored water or food that will be used by the cell Cells also contain other small organs called organelles that carryout various cell functions And then there is the control center of the cell the nucleus surrounded by a protective outer covering call the nuclear membrane The nucleus contains the DNA or chromosomes that carries all the instructions on how a cell will function live and reproduce Every cell needs to energy to live and reproduce Plant and animal cells obtain energy in different ways Animals can not make their own food They obtain energy by taking in food water and oxygen and converting it to sugar Sugar is the only food a cell can eat Plant cells can make their own food from water and sunlight This process is called photosynthesis Both plant and animal cells use energy from the food they obtain to
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