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Biology HSC Course Topic 1 Maintaining a Balance Enzymes The Role of Enzymes Enzymes role is to maintain the rate of chemical activity in an organism They are biological catalysts increasing the rate of reaction in metabolic processes They also enable reactions to occur at lower temperatures which means that body temperatures do not have to be so high Chemical Composition Enzymes are specialised large proteins which are composed of chains of amino acids which are folded to produce a 3-D protein structure 3D can be denatured Lock-and-key Mechanism model Enzymes control specific reactions therefore only one compound can react with a particular enzyme The model used describes how the enzyme closely fits into the shape of the substrate compound The active site is where the enzyme catalyses the reaction Diagram Acidity of a substance PH levels describe the acidity of a substance pH ranges from 1-14 where lower levels are acidic higher levels are basic and 7 is neutral Maintenance of a constant internal environment The maintenance of a constant internal environment is important for optimal metabolic efficiency This is because enzymes require specific temperatures substrate concentration and pH levels to be able to function thereby maintaining optimal metabolic efficiency There is only a very small temp range and pH range in which enzymes can work Temp 36-40 pH 735-745 Specific concentrations of hormones salts glucose water Homeostasis Homeostasis is the process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment The 2 Stages of Homeostasis The organism detects changes from the stable state eg change in body temp The organism responds and counteracts the changes to bring the body back to its stable state The role of the Nervous System The body detects changes via the nervous system which along with the endocrine system co-ordinates and controls the body responding to any
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