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Word Count: 420
RACISM AND MASCULINITY Racist violence is predominantly committed by men but what is the relation to masculinity in what way is this violence a situational accomplishment of masculinity Kersten The traditional explanation would see racist men as underprivileged victims of modernization who compensate economic depravation or a insecure gender identity through racial violence Recent research on young male racists in Germany has problematized this view Typically violent racists would come from stable middle class families Hoffmeister and Sill privileged youth seem more likely to be racist than non-privileged Held the only significant relation that could be established was between racism and a general value orientation towards success competition money and strength Heitmeyer One author summarized that racism is a consequence of Dominanzansprche demands for dominance Rommelspacher these youth try to meet their high demands on success and superiority because only these seem to guarantee a desirable ie masculine identity It is fairly irrelevant whether they come from privileged or underprivileged families whether they in fact are dominant or not its the notion that identity can only be achieved as and through dominance that makes them racists Whether as a fantasy belonging to a superior culture or as realized in racial violence dominance can equally function as identity practice I therefore want to define dominance as a form of identity practice that constructs a difference which legitimizes dominance which grants the agent of dominance the illusion of a superior identity the others identity is denied confined erased Dominance therefore is a relation of identities a process of constructing the other and the same as an oppositional hierarchical relation It is no coincidence that sexism has been described in similar terms because dominance is central to the concept of masculinity Before I explain this claim let me point out three aspects of the definition of dominance 1 I consider the identity relation of dominance to be the most general definition of violence and as such the
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