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Computer Crime Computer crimes need to be prevented and halted thought increasedcomputer network security measures as well as tougher laws and enforcement of those lawsin cyberspace Computer crime is generally defined as any crime accomplished throughspecial knowledge of computer technology All that is required is a personal computer amodem and a phone line Increasing instances of white-collar crime involve computers asmore businesses automate and information becomes an important asset Computers are objectsof crime when they or their contents are damaged as when terrorists attack computercenters with explosives or gasoline or when a computer virus--a programcapable of altering or erasing computer memory--is introduced into a computer system Assubjects of crime computers represent the electronic environment in which frauds areprogrammed and executed an example is the transfer of money balances in accounts toperpetrators accounts for withdrawal Computers are instruments of crime when used toplan or control such criminal acts as complex embezzlements that might occur over longperiods of time or when a computer operator uses a computer to steal valuable informationfrom an employer Computers have been used for most kinds of crime including fraudtheft larceny embezzlement burglary sabotage espionage murder and forgery sincethe first cases were reported in 1958 One study of 1500 computer crimes established thatmost of them were committed by trusted computer users within businesses persons with therequisite skills knowledge access and resources Much of known computer crime hasconsisted of entering false data into computers which is simpler and safer than thecomplex process of writing a program to change data already in the computer With theadvent of personal computers to manipulate information and access computers by telephoneincreasing numbers of crimes--mostly simple but costly electronic trespassingcopyrighted-information piracy and vandalism--have been perpetrated by computerhobbyists known as hackers who display a high level of technical expertiseFor many years the term hacker defined someone who was a wizard with computers andprograming It was an honor to be considered a hacker But when a few hackers began to
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