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During the Conflict of Orders the lower class Romans or plebians forced the upper class Romans known as patricians to give them more rights and liberties Hadas 1969 The Republican government in Rome was established to satisfy the plebians while still leaving a majority of the control with the patricians Octavian Augustus 63 BC 14 AD is known as the first and one of the greatest Roman Emperors ever Octavian enabled the long peaceful time of the Pax Romana by changing Rome from a fragile crumbling republican government to a mighty empire Octavians government was strong enough to withstand weak emperors who mismanaged the Empire His changes proved to be the cornerstone of the greatest empire the world has ever seen The government consisted of three main parts the senate the assemblies and the magistrates The Senate was a group of former state officials usually patricians who acted as advisors controlled public finances and handled all diplomatic dealings with other states Hanes 1997 The assemblies were the various public meetings where citizens voted on laws and public office Hanes 1997 Magistrates were the elected officials who put the laws into practice The most important of these magistrates were the two consuls each elected for one year acted as the chief executives of the state Censors were also very important magistrates Censors were elected every five years to take a census and record the wealth of the people Censors also had two other very important jobs The first was to appoint candidates for the Senate and the second was to award contracts for government projects Hanes 1997 As time passed the Romans also began to elect other magistrates called praetors Praetors acted as judges but could also fill in for the Consuls when they were away Hanes 1997 The Republic first started to lose power in 133 BC Tiberius Gracchus and his brother Gaius were the leaders of a campaign to help the landownerssoldiers of Rome
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