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The consideration of Platonic universals consequently rouses controversy among philosophers Thinkers like Bertrand Russell and Thomas Hobbes contribute reflective explanations for the undeniable usage of question-begging ideas in language and thought While the deliberation of Platonic universals might seem to be fruitless and at best obscure to the layperson it does function as a critical foundation for metaphysics and epistemology Whether a philosopher agrees or disagrees with the idea of Platonic universals is irrelevant to the certain truth that he or she must form some opinion of them preceding most any philosophic endeavorTo attempt to summarize Platos theory of universals in a paragraph would do it a great injustice but a simple working definition of the theory is necessary to move any further Platos theory can be condensed as follows A universal or form is an independently existing nonspatial nontemporal something known only through thought and that cannot be known through the senses independently existing objects of thought that which makes a particular thing uniquely and essentially what it is In even simpler terms a universal would be something like the redness of an apple According to Plato the red quality of the apple must exist because the apple is red But redness itself isnt a tangible thing that can be directly experienced with the senses You cannot produce red itself only things that are red But it is not only the fact that an apple is red that distinguishes it from other objects in the world In addition to its redness an apple is an apple An apple is not a pear The quality unique to the apple is its appleness Thus by appealing to the Platonic universals one can make a distinction between an apple and a pear or all other things in the world Plato concluded that universals must actually exist That is that when appleness is appealed to something out there provides classification for the thing in question This was and
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