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According to the Mine Faculty at the University of Arizona cement is manufactured primarily from suitable limestone and shale rocks Arizona had two dry-process cement plants in 1969 namely the Arizona Portland Cement Company plant in Pima County near Tucson and the American Cement Corporation plant at Clarkdale in Yavapai County 52-53 The use of cementing materials goes back to the ancient Egyptians and Romans but the invention of modern portland cement is usually attributed to Joseph Aspdin a builder in Leeds England who obtained a patent for it in 1824 Currently the annual world production of portland cement is around 700 million metric tons Danbury Many people use the words concrete and cement interchangeably but theyre not Concrete is to cement as a cake is to flour Concrete is a mixture of ingredients that includes cement but contains other ingredients also Day 6-7 Portland cement is produced by pulverizing clinker consisting essentially of hydraulic calcium silicates along with some calcium aluminates and calcium aluminoferrites and usually containing one or more forms of calcium sulfate gypsum as an interground addition Materials used in the manufacture of portland cement must contain appropriate proportions of calcium oxide silica alumina and iron oxide components During manufacture analyses of all materials are made frequently to ensure a uniformly high quality cement Selected raw materials are crushed milled and proportioned in such a way that the resulting mixture has the desired chemical composition The raw materials are generally a mixture of calcareous calcium oxide material such as limestone chalk or shells and an argillaceous silica and alumina material such as clay shale or blast-furnace slag Either a dry or a wet process is used In the dry process grinding and blending operations are done with dry materials In the wet process the grinding and blending are done with the materials in slurry form In other respects the dry and wet processes are very much alike After blending the ground raw
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