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What is a Clone A clone is a group of genetically identical cells or organisms Cloning can occur naturally in nature Single-celled organisms such as bacteria reproduce asexually the process by which a new organism is produced from only a single parent Cloning Techniques There are three main techniques in cloning Each group of researchers has its own specific technique The best known is the Roslin technique and the most effective and most recently developed is the Honolulu technique None of these techniques have been proven to have a high success rate The most promising technique Honolulu only has a 3100 success rate Nuclear Transfer-All cloning experiments of adult mammals have used a variation of nuclear transfer Nuclear transfer requires two cells a donor cell and an unfertilized egg cell The donor cell is forced into a dormant stage and the nucleus is then transplanted into the egg cell The egg cell is then stimulated to create an embryo and is then transplanted into a surrogate mother Occasionally a clone of the donor will be born Roslin Technique-The technique used to create Dolly is known as the Roslin technique A donor cell is starved in a petri dish containing few nutrients This causes the cell to begin shutting down The egg cell and donor cell are placed next to each other and fused together by an electric pulse The embryo is then placed in the uterus of a surrogate mother to produce a clone Honolulu Technique-This technique was used in 1998 to produce cloned mice So far it has proven to have the highest success rate 3 clones out of every 100 attempts An egg cell is injected with the donor cells nucleus and feed a chemical culture to jumpstart the cells growth The cell then develops into an embryo and is transplanted into a surrogate mother Pioneer of Cloning A Scottish embryologist named Ian Wilmut has been the
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