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But is sensory experience fixed and neutral Are theories simply man-made interpretations of given data The epistemological viewpoint that has most often guided Western philosophy for three centuries dictates an immediate and unequivocal Yes Yet this viewpoint no longer functions effectively and the attempts to make it to do so through the introduction of a neutral language of observations now seem to me hopeless This is how Kuhn attacked epistemology which is the logic of the scientific theory of the scientific method Kuhn used the history of science to come up with this result as an anti-realist whereas Popper defended its methodological realism The discovery of O2 clearly describes us the thing that Kuhn supported Lavoisier and Priestley were two scientists who made searches about oxygen Priestley by sticking with the older paradigm had seen dephlogisticated air when he saw oxygen On the other hand Lavoisier had seen oxygen as itself because he learned to see his environment from a newer world view in other words from a newer paradigm As you see Priestley and Lavoisier both saw oxygen but they interpreted their observations differently This example contradicts with the epistemological perspective for it says that sensory experience is fixed and neutral Similarly Aristotle and Galileo both saw pendulums but interpreted differently By looking at the history of science it is easy to duplicate this kind of examples These examples show us that what we perceive is highly related with what we have already known Second discussion is that if theories are simply man-made interpretations of given data According to Kuhn the operations and the measurement that a scientist undertakes in the laboratory are not the given of experience but rather the collected with difficulty Therefore operations and measurements are also paradigm- determined For instance the measurements Galileo made for his pendulum is irrelevant with the measurement Aristotle made for his constrained fall idea Based on these ideas Kuhn notes that it is impossible to
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