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The Wretched Of The Earth Fanons book The Wretched Of The Earth likeFoucaults Discipline and Punish question thebasic assumptions that underlie society Both books writerscome from vastly different perspectives and this shapes whatboth authors see as the technologies that keep the populacein line Foucault coming out of the French intellectual classsees technologies as prisons family mental institutionsand other institutions and cultural traits of French societyIn contrast Frantz Fanon 1925-1961 born in Martinique intoa lower middle class family of mixed race ancestry andreceiving a conventional colonial education sees thetechnologies of control as being the white colonists of thethird world Fanon at first was a assimilationist thinkingcolonists and colonized should try to build a futuretogether But quickly Fanons assimilationist illusions weredestroyed by the gaze of metropolitan racism both in Franceand in the colonized world He responded to the shattering ofhis neo-colonial identity his white mask with his firstbook Black Skin White Mask written in 1952 at the age oftwenty-seven and originally titled An Essay for theDisalienation of Blacks Fanon defined the colonialrelationship as one of the non recognition of the colonizedshumanity his subjecthood by the colonizer in order tojustify his exploitation Fanons next novel The Wretched Of The Earth views the colonized world from the perspectiveof the colonized Like Foucaults questioning of adisciplinary society Fanon questions the basic assumptions ofcolonialism He questions whether violence is a tactic thatshould be employed to eliminate colonialism He questionswhether native intellectuals who have adopted western methodsof thought and urge slow decolonization are in fact part ofthe same technology of control that the white world employsto exploit the colonized He questions whether the colonizedworld should copy the west or develop a whole new set ofvalues and ideas In all these questionings of basicassumptions of colonialism Fanon exposes the methods ofcontrol the white world uses to hold down the colonies Fanoncalls for a radical break with colonial culture rejecting ahypocritical European humanism for a pure revolutionaryconsciousness
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