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Stringer and Brauer propose in their Out of Africa hypothesis that Homo ergaster H heidelbergensis and H sapiens emerged from Africa According to their model H ergaster branched out and led to the rise of H erectus in Asia whereas H heidelbergensis spread more of its species to Europe and possibly Asia Homo sapiens were thought to have emerged right out of Africa and then spread worldwide The recent discovery of the H antecessor fossils at the Gran Dolina and Sima de los Huesos sites in Spain however conflicted with the Out of Africa model The remains of H antecessor are nearly 800000 years old and somewhat different from H heidelbergensis the latter of which was proposed to have migrated out of Africa around 200000 years ago At the Sima site the bones are at least 250000 years old and are assigned to that of H heidelbergensis This evidence suggests that early hominids may not have entirely evolved out of Africa or if they did they were moving around a lot earlier than previously thought The discoverers Arsuaga and Carbonell came up with a new hypothesis differing from Stringer and Brauers but similar in ways to Vallois hypothetical proposal from the 1940s In their model they suggest that H antecessor was the common ancestor of both H heidelbergensis and H sapiens Also H heidelbergensis gave rise to Neanderthals in Europe since they share the feature of a projecting mouth but the former couldnt have been the ancestor of H sapiens as well Arsuaga and Carbonells model also suggests that H heidelbergensis was restricted to Europe and that a hypothetical species such as H rhodesiensis would have evolved from an undiscovered population of H antecessor in Europe and then given rise to H sapiens Mitochondrial DNA evidence suggests the appearance of an anatomically modern H sapiens in Africa around 120000 to 200000 years ago The most variation in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA appears in Africa
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