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20 Android ArchitectureAndroid is a Linux-based software stack for mobile devices that integrates an operating system middleware and key applications designed originally for smartphones and tablets 2 Google acquired Android Inc in 2005 entering the mobile space and thereby setting off a new era in mobile computing 21 Introduction to Android ArchitectureThe major components of the Android Stack are described in Fig 1 Each layer is described in detail in the ensuing subsectionsDrivers Power Management SecurityLayer 1 Linux KernelGraphics Database Management BionicDalvik Virtual Machine and Core librariesApplication Activity and Resource ManagerUser Downloaded and System Offered Applications and WidgetsLayer 2- LibrariesLayer 3- RuntimeLayer 4- Application FrameworkLayer 5- ApplicationFigure 1 Android Stack figure courtesy Google Android SourceLayer 1 Linux Kernel The Android kernel is built on an extremely powerful Linux kernel 9 with some additional architectural changes made by Google This layer contains all essential drivers for communication with hardware and also provides core functionality such as memory management process management networking security settings and power managementAndroid kernel is directly derived from Linux Robert Love an Engineer from Google indicated that the Android OS has an almost Linux kernel but with a user-space unlike that of any other UNIX system 10 Changes introduced in the Linux kernel as it transitioned to become the Android OS include the addition of Android Shared Memory- ashmem Binder for inter process communication Paranoid Networking to restrict network IO for certain processes Viking Killer Androids kill the least recently used process logic under low memory conditions and Wakelocks - Androids effective power management solution in which the default state of the device is sleep 10JNI call HardwareLinux KernelBionic and shared librariesJNIApplicationServiceApplication FrameworkHardwareLinux KernelGlibc and shared librariesNative C ProgramBinder Call System Call System CallFigure 2 Android vs Linux Kernel Figure Courtesy OHAFig2 depicts the primary differences between the Android OS and the Linux 26 operating environment The Java Abstraction Layer
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