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Why the Pen in Your Hand is a Pen Aristotle would agree that the pen in your hand is a pen According to Aristotle everything is either a substance or an attribute the pen in your hand is a substance All substances consist of 2 Ontological moments matter and form An object must have matter and form to be accepted as a substance A substances matter is what it is made of and the form is what makes the substance what it is both of are needed to make the pen a pen The matter of the pen is the ink the plastic and the ballpoint The form of the pen is the penness However matter and form are not the only essentials Aristotle would use to support the fact that the pen in your hand is a pen Aristotle Causes would also be used to verify the pens existence These causes lead to the purpose of a substance The first cause is known as the Material Cause which deals with the matter of the substance The Material Cause of the pen is ink the plastic and the ballpoint The second cause is known as the Formal Cause which deals with the form of the substance The Formal Cause of the pen is penness Both of these Causes make up the third Cause which is known as the Efficient Cause The Efficient Cause is the principle of motion or change The person or machine that produced the pen Source Looking at Philosophy 3rd Edition by Donald Palmer McGraw Hill 2001 would be the Efficient Cause of the pen The last Cause is called the Final Cause this Cause deals with the purpose of a substance The Final Cause of the pen is to be used for writing These four causes along with the Ontological moments of a substance help lead to the conclusion that the pen in your hand is a pen
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