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Aristotle born in the year 384 BCE in Stagirus Greece is known as one of the greatest thinkers of ancient times At the age of 18 he joined Platos academy and stayed there until he was 37However following Platos death Aristotle began to read more empirical books and shifted from Platonism to empiricism His main belief was that all of peoples concepts and all of their knowledge were ultimately based on perception Aristotles views on natural sciences including philosophy of the mind body sensory experience memory physics ethics and biology represent the groundwork underlying many of his works and greatly changed the way of western learning When it came to physics Aristotle believed that there were 5 elements in the universe They are earth water fire air and aether He says aether is the divine substance that makes up the heavenly spheres and heavenly bodies stars and planets He says that all of these elements have a certain spot in nature and all that is earthly moves toward the center of the universe If any of the elements move out of place they will naturally move back to where they were He also suggested that the reason anything can happen is because of four different types of simultaneously active causal factors Those four factors are material cause formal cause efficient cause and final cause Using these he says things can be caused by other things One of them is the beginning of the change and the other is the goal When it comes to metaphysics Aristotle defines metaphysics as the knowledge of immaterial being He refers to metaphysics as first philosophy When thinking about metaphysics Aristotle comes to the conclusion particular substance is a combination of both matter and form He distinguishes the matter of the substance as the substratum stuff its composed of This means the matter that makes up an object has the potential to be that object the making of the object
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