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Word Count: 1,058
Cancer is one of the most complex and devastating diseases that claim the life of many humans Today there are one in three people worldwide who are affected by cancer and almost 60 of these people will almost certainly die 7000 New Zealanders die every year from this disease It is the second largest killer next to heart disease Cancer does not just affect certain groups of people it can affect anybody and it is not just one disease it refers to more than a hundred diseases Cancer is caused by carcinogens At present hundreds of chemicals are known to induce cancer Normally the bodys cells divide in an orderly way allowing the body to grow and to heal after injury Damage or mutations that occur to the proto-oncogenes POG and tumour suppresser Genes TSG in the genetic material DNA and RNA by these carcinogens bring about Cancer which causes cells to have less control of cell division and differentiation POGs lead to changed cells or transformed cells and cause excessive cell division Further mutations cause the cells to become immortal These cells continue to divide and form a ball of cells These cells require a lot of energy and fluids flowing to maintain the high rate of the cell division When these balls become too large for fluids to flow through the middle of the ball dies TSGs act as anti-proto-oncogenes they regulate the rate of cell division POGs and TSGs constantly compete to overpower each other These TSGs can be mutated and this brings about a change in the control mechanism of cell division Cells are stimulated to divide through a growth factor Growth factor molecules bind to cell membranes of cells and send a chemical message to a receptor in the cell membrane The receptor sends a message through the cytoplasm to the nucleus to stimulate cell division Sometimes when these growth factors are absent
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