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Throughout many years geneticists have established the understanding of genetics which has produced a result of numerous scientific improvements The greatest discoveries were the Monohybrid and Dihybrid crossing by Gregor Mendel and evolution and natural selection by Charles Darwin Plants and animals that generate advantageous features are desired for by breeders These advantageous features are aspects that will advantage the individual and the species in the future Two major processes we will look in detail at today are selective breeding and transgenesisBreeding controlled by human beings is called selective breeding This is when particular animals or plants are selected to breed and produce offspring with desired characteristics which are valued by the breeder Breeders pick animals or plants which show in their phenotype the specific trait desired for There are different approaches to the procedure of selective breeding these include embryo selection animal breeding plant breeding and marker assisted breeding For animal breeding to begin the breeder decides which trait is important From here animals or plants with the same trait are selected and bred There are two alleles for every trait that an organism has one which is dominant and one which is recessive If the trait desired by the breeder is a dominant trait meaning that the allele is expressed in the phenotype even if there are recessive alleles two animals with the dominant desired trait are bred The breeder needs to ensure that the recessive trait the allele which is not expressed in the phenotype only in the genotype is not present in the genotype which is the genetic makeup of an individual of the parents This can be checked by breeding the animal with a purebred possess only the dominant trait in the genotype of the desired trait If all the offspring produced have only the pair dominant alleles meaning that they are homozygous then this means that the parent possesses the dominant allele and not the recessive allele However if
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